15 Jan Ask Susan: My Daughter Has Been Diagnosed with Dyscalculia
A psychologist yesterday diagnosed my daughter with dyscalculia. I know about dyslexia but I have never heard of dyscalculia until now and am trying my best to get a grip on this – the what, the whys and where to now?
Just like “dyslexia” refers to the otherwise intelligent child (or adult) who has severe reading problems, one could use the term “dyscalculia” to refer to the otherwise intelligent child (or adult) who has severe mathematical problems.
No one seems to know when the word “dyscalculia” came to life – the earliest I have come across it is an advertisement in the New York Times from May 1968 (see below). We do, however, know that researchers have used other words for what they found to be some sort of disability in math (which they already found in the 1800s): arithmetic disability, arithmetic deficit, mathematical disability, and so on. The media has been using words like digit dyslexia, number blindness and the obvious math dyslexia.
According to the British Dyslexia Association dyscalculia and dyslexia occur both independently of each other and together. Research suggests that 40-50 percent of dyslexics show no signs of dyscalculia. They perform at least as well in math as other children, with about 10 percent achieving at a higher level. The remaining 50-60 percent do have difficulties with math. Best estimates indicate that somewhere between 3 and 6 percent of the population are affected with dyscalculia only – i.e. people who only have difficulties with math but have good or even excellent performance in other areas of learning.
What are the symptoms?
Dyscalculia symptoms include:
- Poor understanding of the signs +, -, ÷ and x, or may confuse these mathematical symbols.
- Difficulty with addition, subtraction, multiplication and division or may find it difficult to understand the words “plus”, “add”, “add-together”.
- Difficulty with times tables.
- Poor mental arithmetic skills.
- May have trouble even with a calculator due to difficulties in the process of feeding in variables.
- May reverse or transpose numbers for example 63 for 36, or 785 for 875.
- Difficulty with conceptualizing time and judging the passing of time.
- Difficulty with everyday tasks like checking change.
- Difficulty keeping score during games.
- Inability to comprehend financial planning or budgeting, sometimes even at a basic level. For example, estimating the cost of the items in a shopping basket.
- Inability to grasp and remember mathematical concepts, rules, formulae, and sequences.
- May have a poor sense of direction (i.e., north, south, east, and west), potentially even with a compass.
- May have difficulty mentally estimating the measurement of an object or distance (e.g., whether something is five or 10 feet away).
- Extreme cases may lead to a phobia of mathematics and mathematical devices.
Finding the cause will help solve a problem
Successful intervention is dependent on finding the cause or causes of a problem. Most problems can only be solved if one knows their causes. A disease such as scurvy claimed the lives of thousands of seamen during their long sea voyages. The disease was cured fairly quickly once the cause was discovered, viz. a vitamin C deficiency. A viable point of departure would therefore be to ask the question, “What causes dyscalculia?”
Mathematics consists of three aspects
Foundational skills: Research has shown that visual perception, visual memory, and logical thinking (which makes problem solving possible) are the most important foundational skills of maths.
Mathematical skills: There are many things in mathematics that the learner must learn to do, like, for example, the skills of counting, of adding and subtracting, of multiplication and division.
Knowledge: There is much in math that one simply has to know and therefore has to learn, for example many terms, definitions, symbols, theorems and axioms. These are all things that the learner must know, not things that he must know how to do.
Learning a stratified process
It should also be noted that learning is a stratified process. Certain skills have to be mastered first, before it becomes possible to master subsequent skills.
In order to be a cricket player, a person first has to master the foundational skills, e.g. batting, bowling, catching and fielding. In the same way, in order to do math, a child first has to learn the foundational skills of math, like visual perception and visual memory. The child who confuses the signs +, -, ÷ and x, may have a problem with visual discrimination of forms and/or visual discrimination of position in space. A child who has a poor sense of direction (i.e., north, south, east, and west), may have a problem with visual discrimination of position in space, etc.
The second step would be to master mathematical skills, which must be done in a sequential fashion. One has to learn to count before it becomes possible to learn to add and subtract. Suppose one tried to teach a child, who had not yet learned to count, to add and subtract. This would be quite impossible and no amount of effort would ever succeed in teaching the child these skills. The child must learn to count first, before it becomes possible for him to learn to add and subtract.
The third step would be to ensure that a learner catches up in the knowledge aspect of math.
Edublox’s Dyscalculia Program
Edublox’s Dyscalculia Program consists of Development Tutor plus a few additional hands-on exercises. Development Tutor aims at addressing the underlying shortcomings that interfere with math performance, such as poor visual memory and logical thinking. The additional exercises, free of charge, aim at teaching the skills of counting, adding and subtracting, and multiplication and division. To implement the program you need to subscribe to Development Tutor, and then contact [email protected] to gain access to the additional exercises.
Below is an example of a child’s progress after following Edublox’s Dyscalculia Program. She was diagnosed with dyscalculia as well as dyslexia, ADHD and low IQ. Click here to follow her amazing journey to learning success.
The bottom line
Jessica, the only solution for a problem like dyscalculia is to address the causes. Until we have done that, the child will continue to struggle.
Tips for sending questions
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More about Susan
Susan is an educational specialist in the field of learning problems and dyslexia and has a B.A. Honors in Psychology and B.D. degree from the University of Pretoria. Early in her professional career Susan was instrumental in training over 3000 teachers and tutors, providing them with the foundational and practical understanding to facilitate cognitive development amongst children who struggle to read and write. With over 25 years of research to her name Susan conceptualized the Edublox teaching and learning methods that have helped thousands of children who were struggling academically to read, learn and achieve. In 2007, Susan opened the first Edublox reading and learning clinic and now there are 25 Edublox clinics internationally. Her proudest moments are when she sees a child who had severe learning difficulties come top of their class after one or two years at Edublox. Susan always takes time to collect the ‘hero’ stories of learners whose self-esteem is lifted as their marks improve.