Dyslexia is a common concern as it affects many children and adults. And although no two dyslexics have the same symptoms, there are key symptoms that you can, quite easily, pick up.
Reading difficulties related to visual-processing weaknesses have been called dyseidetic dyslexia, visual dyslexia, orthographic dyslexia, or surface dyslexia.
The primary deficit of dyseidetic dyslexia is the inability to revisualize the gestalt of words. The child with dyseidetic dyslexia generally has a good grasp of phonetic concepts. Usually, they have little difficulty spelling words which may be long but are phonetically regular, but small and irregular nonphonetic words, such as what, the, talk, and does create a big difficulty. They have limited sight vocabulary; many words need to be sounded out laboriously, as though being seen for the first time. They seem to attend only to partial cues in words, overlooking a systematic analysis of English orthography.
Symptoms of dyseidetic dyslexia
Corinne Roth Smith lists other reading and spelling patterns of children with dyseidetic dyslexia:
- Confusion with letters that differ in orientation (b-d, p-q).
- Confusion with words that can be dynamically reversed (was-saw).
- Losing the place because one doesn’t instantly recognize what had already been read, as when switching one’s gaze from the right side of one line to the left side of the next line.
- Omitting letters and words because they weren’t visually noted.
- Masking the image of one letter, by moving the eye too rapidly to the subsequent letter, may result in the omission of the first letter.
- Difficulty with rapid retrieval of words due to visual retrieval weaknesses.
- Visual stimuli in reading prove so confusing that it is easier for the child to learn to read by first spelling the words orally and then putting them in print.
- Insertions, omissions, and substitutions, if the meaning of the passage is guiding reading.
- Difficulty recalling the shape of a letter when writing.
- Spells phonetically but not bizarrely (laf-laugh; bisnis-business).
- Can spell difficult phonetic words but not simple irregular words.
Causes of dyseidetic dyslexia
It should be noted that two separate regions of the brain are involved in reading: one in sounding out words, and the other in seeing words as pictures.
Neuroscientists at Georgetown University Medical Center (2016) discovered that skilled readers can recognize words at lightning-fast speed when they read because the word has been placed in a sort of visual dictionary. This part of the brain is known as the visual word form area and functions separately from an area that processes the sounds of written words.
Glezer and her coauthors tested word recognition in 27 volunteers in two different experiments using fMRI. They were able to see that words that were different, but sound the same, like ‘hare’ and ‘hair’ activate different neurons, akin to accessing different entries in a dictionary’s catalog. If the sounds of the word had influence in this part of the brain we would expect to see that they activate the same or similar neurons, but this was not the case — ‘hair’ and ‘hare’ looked just as different as ‘hair’ and ‘soup’. In addition, the researchers found a different distinct region that was sensitive to the sounds, where ‘hair’ and ‘hare’ did look the same. The researchers thus showed that the brain has regions that specialize in doing each of the components of reading: one region is doing the visual piece and the other is doing the sound piece. The part of the brain that does not work well then in the case of a child with dyseidetic dyslexia, is most likely the region that is doing the visual piece, which is called the visual word form area.
Although some causes of dyslexia have a genetic origin (Kere, 2014), and environmental factors play an important role (Stein, 2018), cognition mediates brain-behavior relationships and therefore offers a sufficient level of explanation for the development of principled interventions. We thus need to understand the cognitive difficulties that underpin reading failure, regardless of whether their origin is constitutional or environmental (Elliott & Grigorenko, 2014). To understand what causes dyseidetic dyslexia we thus need to focus on the cognitive skills that must be acquired first, before one can become good at revisualizing the gestalt of words.
While phonological and auditory processing skills, and auditory memory are foundational to learning phonics, visual processing skills (such as spatial relations and form discrimination), visual memory, visuospatial memory, and rapid recall are foundational to revisualizing the gestalt of words. Rapid recall refers to the speed with which the names of symbols (letters, numbers, colors, or pictured objects) can be retrieved from long-term memory (De Jong & van der Leij, 2003). This process is often termed rapid automatized naming (RAN), and people with dyslexia typically score poorer on RAN assessments than normal readers (Elliott & Grigorenko, 2014).
Treatment of dyseidetic dyslexia
The good news is that weaknesses in cognitive skills can be attacked head-on; it is possible to strengthen these mental skills through training and practice. Edublox’s Development Tutor aims at strengthening underlying cognitive skills including visual processing skills, visual memory, visuospatial memory, and rapid recall. In addition, a child with dyseidetic dyslexia will also need application in the form of reading and spelling exercises. This can best be accomplished by Edublox’s live tutoring services. Our live tutoring program is based on the Orton Gillingham approach but simultaneously aims at developing the brain’s visual word form area, mentioned above. If live tutoring is impossible, you might want to consider Edublox’s Reading Tutor program.
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Page last reviewed: May 28, 2021.
Next review due: May 28, 2023.
References and sources:
De Jong, P. F., & van der Leij, A. (2003). Developmental changes in the manifestation of a phonological deficit in dyslexic children learning to read a regular orthography. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(1), 22-40.
Elliott, J. G., & Grigorenko, E. L. (2014). The dyslexia debate. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Georgetown University Medical Center (2016, June 9). In the brain, one area sees familiar words as pictures, another sounds out words. Retrieved July 15, 2019 from https://bit.ly/2XLzNHd
Kere, J. (2014). The molecular genetics and neurobiology of developmental dyslexia as model of a complex phenotype. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 452(2), 236-243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.07.102
Smith, C. R. (1991). Learning disabilities: The interaction of learner, task, and setting. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Stein, J. (2018). The magnocellular theory of developmental dyslexia. In T. Lachmann, & T. Weis (Eds.). Reading and dyslexia (pp. 97-128). Cham, Switzerland: Springer.