Man is unique in his ability to communicate ideas in symbolic language, and for centuries writing has been an important method of communication. Spelling checkers have certainly made life easier for modern-day writers. However, regardless of the career you choose, you have to know how to write if you want to be successful, research says.
The concept of “writing” encompasses a broad spectrum of tasks, ranging from the transcription of a single letter to the intricate process of conceptualizing, drafting, revising, and editing a doctoral dissertation. Writing is the usual medium through which students convey to teachers what they have learned. In many situations, adults also find writing a necessity that they cannot avoid. Deficient writing has been associated with lower self-perception, lower self-esteem, and poorer social functioning (Chung et al., 2020).
Most people never consider the complexity and difficulty of the writing process. In fact, relative to all other academic activities, writing requires more basic skills than perhaps any other. Even during their earliest handwriting exercises, children must combine complex physical and cognitive processes to render letters precisely and fluidly.
As writing tasks become more difficult, students must call on an increasingly wide range of skills to not only write legibly, logically, and in an organized way but also invoke rules of grammar and syntax. This combination of requirements makes writing the most complex and difficult use of language. For individuals with dysgraphia, writing can therefore be an uphill battle.
Table of contents:
- What is dysgraphia?
- How common is dysgraphia?
- What are the symptoms of dysgraphia?
- What are the types of dysgraphia?
- What causes dysgraphia?
- How does treatment for dysgraphia work?
What is dysgraphia?
The term dysgraphia is often used when discussing writing disabilities. The word was coined from the Greek words dys meaning ill or difficult, and graphein meaning to write. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition (DSM-5) includes dysgraphia under the specific learning disorder category but does not define it as a separate disorder.
At its broadest definition, dysgraphia is a disorder of writing ability at any stage, including problems with letter formation/legibility, letter spacing, spelling, fine motor coordination, rate of writing, grammar, and composition. Dysgraphia can also refer to severe handwriting difficulties only. We will use the first definition and look at its subcategories of spelling, handwriting, and written composition. Children with a writing disability may experience difficulties in one or more of these areas.
Dysgraphia, like all learning disabilities, can be devastating to a child’s education and dramatically limit what that child can achieve later in life. Writing is an important academic skill that has been associated with overall academic achievement (Cahill, 2009). School requirements demand a high level of writing proficiency. On average, writing tasks occupy up to half of the school day (Amundson & Weil, 1996), and a child who struggles with a writing disability will therefore find it increasingly difficult to express their knowledge on many subjects, as the writing process itself will stand firmly in the way of learning.
How common is dysgraphia?
Due to a lack of a clear-cut definition for dysgraphia and the dearth of research focused specifically on it, there are few statistics regarding prevalence. However, written language disabilities are very common in students with learning disabilities, including in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (Adi-Japha et al., 2007), and they tend to be persistent. According to Kushki et al. (2011), between 10% and 30% of children experience difficulty writing, although the exact prevalence depends on the definition of dysgraphia.
There is an overlap between the signs and symptoms of dysgraphia and dyslexia. From the first studies of dyslexia, there has been continuing evidence that mild clumsiness — a possible symptom of dysgraphia — is associated with dyslexia. In a review of Orton’s research, Geschwind (1982) noted: “He pointed out the frequency of clumsiness in dyslexics. Although others have commented on this, it still remains a mysterious and not adequately studied problem.”
Data from the British Births cohort examined the skills of 12,905 children and identified two motor skills tasks at age ten that were significantly associated with dyslexia: failure to throw a ball up, clap several times and catch the ball, and also failure to walk backward in a straight line for six steps. Deficits in fine motor skills have also been identified in terms of characteristically poor handwriting and copying in young children, coupled with difficulty in tying shoelaces (Chung et al., 2020). Deficits in motor skills are also symptomatic of dysgraphia.
What are the symptoms of dysgraphia?
Below are possible symptoms of dysgraphia:
- Generally illegible writing, despite appropriate time and attention given the task.
- Inconsistencies: mixtures of print and cursive, upper and lower case, or irregular sizes, shapes, or slant of letters.
- Inconsistent position on page with respect to lines and margins and inconsistent spaces between words and letters.
- Motor feedback difficulty: trouble tracking the location of pencil; face too close to the paper; cramped or unusual grip, especially holding the writing instrument very close to the paper, or holding thumb over two fingers and writing from the wrists.
- Inability to remember motor patterns associated with letters.
- Inability to revisualize letters.
- Talking to self while writing, or carefully watching the hand that is writing.
- Slow or labored copying or writing, even if it is neat and legible.
- Spelling errors; sometimes the same word is spelled differently.
- Reversals; phonic approximations; syllable omissions; errors in common suffixes.
- Difficulty comprehending spelling rules, patterns, and structures (in older children); lack of phonemic awareness (in younger children).
- Random or non-existent punctuation.
- Individuals with dysgraphia may exhibit strong verbal but particularly poor writing skills.
- Production problems: overly simplistic; too many common words; or complex with errors in syntax, morphology, or semantics.
- Unsophisticated ideation: difficulty selecting a topic, brainstorming, researching, thinking critically, coming up with ideas, etc.
- Organizational problems: don’t know where to begin, confusion with steps.
What does dysgraphia look like?
What are the warning signs of dysgraphia?
In early writers:
- Tight, awkward pencil grip and body position
- Avoiding writing or drawing tasks
- Trouble forming letter shapes
- Inconsistent spacing between letters or words
- Poor understanding of uppercase and lowercase letters
- Inability to write or draw in a line or within margins
- Tiring quickly while writing
In young students:
- Illegible handwriting
- A mixture of cursive and print writing
- Saying words out loud while writing
- Concentrating so hard on writing that comprehension of what’s written is missed
- Trouble thinking of words to write
- Omitting or not finishing words in sentences
In teenagers and adults:
- Trouble organizing thoughts on paper
- Trouble keeping track of thoughts already written down
- Difficulty with syntax structure and grammar
- A large gap between written ideas and understanding demonstrated through speech
What are the types of dysgraphia?
Dysgraphia is commonly thought of in the following two ways:
Acquired dysgraphia is associated with brain injury, disease, or degenerative conditions that cause the individual (typically as an adult) to lose previously acquired skills in writing.
Developmental dysgraphia refers to difficulties in acquiring writing skills. This type of dysgraphia is most commonly considered in childhood. Researchers have identified several subtypes of developmental dysgraphia:
- Motor dysgraphia is due to deficient fine motor skills, poor dexterity, poor muscle tone, and/or unspecified motor clumsiness. Generally, written work is poor to illegible, even if copied by sight from another document. Letter formation may be acceptable in very short samples of writing, but this requires extreme effort, an unreasonable amount of time to accomplish, and cannot be sustained for a significant length of time. Writing is often slanted due to holding a pen or pencil incorrectly. Spelling skills are not impaired. Finger tapping speed (a method for identifying fine motor problems) results are below normal.
- Spatial dysgraphia is due to a defect in the understanding of space. This person has illegible spontaneously written work, illegible copied work, but normal spelling and normal finger tapping speed. Students with spatial dysgraphia often have trouble keeping their writing on the lines and difficulty with spacing between words.
- However, others have placed much more focus on the language processing deficits related to written expression, with less emphasis on any motor issues. Qualifying terms for this type of dysgraphia include “dysorthography,” “linguistic dysgraphia,” or “dyslexic dysgraphia.” With dyslexic dysgraphia a person’s spontaneously written work is illegible and their spelling poor, while copied work is pretty neat. Finger tapping speed is normal. A dyslexic dysgraphic does not necessarily have dyslexia, but they often occur together.
What causes dysgraphia?
Most problems can only be solved if one knows what causes the problem. A disease such as scurvy claimed the lives of thousands of seamen during long sea voyages. The disease was cured fairly quickly once the cause was discovered, viz. a Vitamin C deficiency. A viable point of departure would therefore be to ask the question, What causes dysgraphia?
As early as 1896, Baldwin noted that human learning is a stratified process. This implies that certain skills have to be mastered first, before it becomes possible to master subsequent skills. One has to learn to count before it becomes possible to learn to add and subtract. In the same way, there are skills that a student must have mastered first, before they will be proficient in writing. Unless underlying shortcomings are addressed first, the child’s writing will not improve.
Letter awareness typically begins in kindergarten and progresses through second grade, during which time the child becomes familiarized with the relationship between sounds and phonemes while continuing to grow in motor skills (Berninger et al., 2008). Automaticity, in which individual letter writing has become a rote response, is usually developed by third grade (Feder & Majnemer, 2007).
Research has confirmed that language, cognitive, and motor skills underlie the act of writing.
Language is an essential ingredient of writing. The ability to recognize letter sounds, comprehend words and their meanings, understand word order and grammar to construct sentences, and describe or explain ideas all affect a person’s effectiveness as a writer.
Writing often requires considerable mental energy and focus over long periods of time. Writers must not only preview what they want to convey but also continually monitor what they’ve already written to stay on track.
Adi-Japha et al. (2007) revealed that children with ADHD and normal reading skills made significantly more spelling errors than their non-ADHD counterparts, and that their spelling errors showed a unique pattern such as letter insertions, substitutions, transpositions and omissions. This error type, also known as graphemic buffer errors, can be explained by impaired attention aspects needed for motor planning. The results suggest that the spelling errors and writing deficits seen in children with ADHD stem primarily from non-linguistic deficits, while linguistic factors play a secondary role.
Many students with learning disorders have problems with ordering — either ordering things in time (temporal ordering), sequence (sequential ordering), or ordering things in physical space (spatial ordering). Children with dysgraphia may struggle with spatial ordering, i.e., they have decreased awareness regarding the spatial arrangement of letters, words, or sentences on a page. They may also struggle with sequential ordering, i.e., they have difficulty placing in order or maintaining the order of letters, words, processes, or ideas.
Johns Hopkins University neuroscientists studied 15 years’ worth of cases in which 33 people were left with spelling impairments after suffering strokes. Some of the people had long-term memory difficulties, others working-memory issues.
With long-term memory difficulties, people can’t remember how to spell words they once knew and tend to make educated guesses. They could probably correctly guess a predictably spelled word like “camp,” but with a more unpredictable spelling like “sauce,” they might try “soss.” In severe cases, people trying to spell “lion” might offer things like “lonp,” “lint” and even “tiger.” With working memory issues, people know how to spell words but they have trouble choosing the correct letters or assembling the letters in the correct order — “lion” might be “liot,” “lin,” “lino,” or “liont.”
A study by Vlachos and Karapetsas (2003), on the other hand, confirmed the claims of previous studies that at least some types of dysgraphia are associated with visual memory problems. Their results suggest that children with dysgraphia possibly suffer poor visual memory more than visuomotor skills (visuomotor skills refer to vision and movement working together to produce actions).
Graphomotor function is the use of the neuromuscular system to effectively maneuver a pen or pencil and put letters and words on paper. Children with graphomotor problems struggle with this, especially as assignment length increases. This function affects a student’s ability to keep pace with the flow of ideas.
Graphomotor skills include gross and fine motor skills:
- Gross motor skills are involved in the movement and coordination of the arms, legs, and other large body parts. They participate in actions such as running, crawling, and swimming. Many people think that having good gross motor skills can enable a child to excel at sports. This is only part of the benefit! Developing a child’s gross motor skills can do so much more than that – they can influence a child’s ability to write. Efficient control of the larger muscle groups in the neck, shoulder, and trunk is necessary to maintain stability in order for the fingers and hands to move to complete the handwriting task.
- Fine motor skills are involved in smaller movements that occur in the wrists, hands, fingers, and the feet and toes. They participate in smaller actions such as picking up objects between the thumb and finger, writing carefully, and even blinking. These two motor skills work together to provide coordination. Children with poor fine motor skills will typically
- have an awkward or immature pencil grasp for their age
- have poor handwriting; their writing may be messy, slow, or laborious
- fatigue quickly when typing or using a mouse on a computer
- have difficulty when using scissors
- have difficulty performing precise manipulation tasks, for example, using a spoon or fork, buttoning their clothes, or tying shoelaces
- have difficulty performing age-appropriate self-care tasks independently
- tire easily when engaging in fine motor tasks.
How does treatment for dysgraphia work?
Since dysgraphia may be caused by language problems, weak underlying cognitive skills (e.g., poor visual memory), as well as deficient graphomotor skills (e.g., poor fine motor skills), and may affect handwriting, spelling and writing composition, each child’s Edublox program is tailor-made. A customized approach is also required as dysgraphia may co-occur with other learning disorders, including dyslexia. Depending on the variables studied and the definitions utilized, between 30-47% of children with writing problems also have reading problems (Chung & Patel, 2015).
Authored by Susan du Plessis (B.A. Hons Psychology; B.D.), an educational specialist with 30+ years’ experience in the field of learning disabilities.
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