In 1969 Laszlo Virag was tried and initially convicted of being a person who had committed armed robberies in Liverpool and Bristol. He was convicted based on the testimony from several witnesses who picked him out of line-ups or identiﬁed him from photographs. One police witness claimed that “his face is imprinted on my brain.”
But it transpired that another person, known as George Payen, was responsible for these crimes — someone who bore a passing but not striking resemblance to Mr. Virag. Mr. Virag was pardoned in 1974, having been the victim of a miscarriage of justice based upon mistaken identity.
Memory is the process by which knowledge is encoded, stored, and later retrieved. Although the word memory may conjure up an image of a singular, “all-or-none” process, it is clear that there are many kinds of memory, each of which may be somewhat independent of the others. Visual memory involves the ability to store and retrieve previously experienced visual sensations and perceptions when the stimuli that originally evoked them are no longer present. That is, the person must be capable of making a vivid visual image in his mind of the stimulus — such as a word, face, and picture — and once that stimulus is removed, be able to visualize or recall this image without help.
Types of visual memory
Researchers have subdivided visual memory into three main subsystems: visual sensory memory, visual short-term memory, and visual long-term memory.
– Visual sensory memory
Visual sensory memory – also named iconic memory — can easily be experienced by going into a dark room with a ﬂash camera and taking a picture. Although the camera’s ﬂashbulb will provide only a few milliseconds of illumination, the perception of the illuminated room will fade over a period of about half a second.
– Visual short-term memory
Visual short-term memory (STM) stores visual information for a few seconds so that it can be used in the service of ongoing cognitive tasks. Compared with iconic memory representations, visual STM representations are longer-lasting, more abstract, and more durable.
A large amount of evidence indicates that verbal STM and visual STM are distinct memory stores. For example, brain damage can lead to a disruption of verbal STM without disruption of visual STM and vice versa, and it is possible to occupy verbal STM with one task without impacting visual STM for another task and vice versa.
– Visual long-term memory
Short-term memory for visual materials is highly limited in capacity, but long-term memory for visual stimuli has no clear capacity limit. After viewing 600 photographs of scenes and events, subjects recognized 92% of images when tested one day later, and 63% of images when tested one year later. Such dramatic differences in capacity are vividly depicted in the titles of two widely cited articles, “Learning 10,000 Pictures” (Standing, 1973), and “The Magical Number 4 in Short-term Memory” (Cowan, 2001).
Visual memory and academics
Various researchers have stated that as much as eighty percent of all learning takes place through the eye with visual memory existing as a crucial aspect of learning.
– Critical for reading, spelling, and writing
Visual memory is a critical factor in reading, spelling, and writing. Children who have not developed their visual memory skills cannot readily reproduce a sequence of visual stimuli. They frequently experience difficulty in remembering the overall visual appearance of words or the letter sequence of words for reading and spelling. They may remember the letters of a word but often cannot remember their order, or they may know the initial letter and configuration of the word without having absorbed the details, that is, the subsequent letters of the word. As a result, these children fail to develop a good sight vocabulary and frequently experience serious spelling difficulties.
It can be terribly frustrating for one with a visual memory deficit to perform a handwriting or word copying exercise. Children with difficulty in visual memory may have trouble copying letters, words, and sentences from a chalkboard or book. They may present with very slow handwriting, trouble forming letters, and mixing up letters or words within sentences. Producing written work on worksheets and tests may be difficult.
– Significantly related to math performance
One hundred seventy-one children with a mean age of 10.08 years participated in a study by Marjean Kulp et al. This study, conducted at the Ohio State University College of Optometry in 2004 was designed to determine whether or not performance on tests of visual perception could predict the children with poor current achievement in mathematics.
Visual perception refers to the process of interpreting and organizing visual information. Visual perceptual skill is often subdivided into areas such as visual discrimination and visual memory. Visual discrimination involves the ability to attend to and identify a figure’s distinguishing features and details, such as shape, orientation, color, and size.
Kulp et al. concluded: “Poor visual perceptual ability is significantly related to poor achievement in mathematics, even when controlling for verbal cognitive ability. Therefore, visual perceptual ability, and particularly visual memory, should be considered to be amongst the skills that are significantly related to mathematics achievement.”
A research study by Szűcs and his colleagues (2013) from the University of Cambridge, UK set out to compare various potential theories of dyscalculia in more than a thousand 9-year-old children. Dyscalculia refers to a severe math learning difficulty, which affects roughly 6 percent of schoolchildren. These children show normal intelligence and their reading skills may be perfect. Dyscalculia is often described as “like dyslexia, but for math”.
The researchers found that children with dyscalculia showed poor visual-spatial memory performance. For example, they performed poorly when they had to remember the locations of items in a spatial grid.
– Important for paying attention
Lufi and Cohen (1985) compared the visual STM of 24 children with Attentional Deficit Disorder (ADD) with a control group of 17 children with emotional problems. The results showed that the control group performed significantly better than the ADD group, which confirms that visual STM plays an important role in attention and concentration.
Although an important cognitive ability for many intellectual tasks, the measurement of visual STM is usually not a part of the standard batteries that measure intelligence, aptitude, and achievement.
Visual memory can be trained
Kleinfeld (1973) tested the visual memory of 501 urban Caucasian and 125 village Eskimo children. Village Eskimo children demonstrated significantly higher levels of visual memory. Visual memory was also found to increase significantly with age.
In contrast to the striking visual differences of the urban environment, the Arctic is a world of visual uniformity. The flat, monotonous tundra and piled sea ice provide few distinctive visual markers to guide the hunting on which survival in part depended. To hunt and find their way back to the village, the Eskimo had to attend to very small visual cues and their patterned relationships such as upturned rocks or the angle of the Big Dipper at different times of the day. Caucasians who had traveled with the Eskimo frequently remarked upon their extraordinary ability to travel through what seemed to be a featureless terrain by closely observing the smallest landmarks and memorizing their spatial locations.
This clearly shows that visual memory can be trained!
How Edublox can help
Edublox Online Tutor (EOT) houses several multisensory cognitive training programs that enable students to overcome learning obstacles and reach their full potential.
EOT is founded on pedagogical research and 30+ years of experience demonstrating that weak underlying cognitive skills account for the majority of learning difficulties. Underlying cognitive skills include visual memory. Specific cognitive exercises can strengthen these weaknesses leading to increased performance in reading, spelling, writing, math, and learning.
In one research study, Edublox improved visual memory by 1.3 years in 5 days. Chiropractor Dr. Jaidan Mays compared the effects of Edublox training versus Edublox training combined with cervical spinal manipulative therapy on visual memory and visual sequential memory.
Thirty-four Grade 5, 6, and 7 students from an inner-city school participated in Mays’s study. Two subtests of the Test of Visual Perceptual Skills were used to assess the visual memory and visual sequential memory of the students. They were then divided into two equal groups.
The members of the first group (the Edublox Group) did Edublox for 22.5 hours over five days. The members of the second group (the Edublox and Adjustment Group) received the same Edublox training as the first group, but this second group also received cervical adjustment therapy every morning for the five days. The assessment was repeated after five days.
The results: The mean Visual Memory Skills Test POST score across both groups was significantly higher than the mean Visual Memory Skills Test PRE score. The mean score across both groups improved from 6.2 years to 7.5 years. As the graph below illustrates, the Edublox Group improved slightly more than the Edublox and Adjustment Group (an improvement from 6.3 to 7.8 years versus an improvement from 6.2 to 7.1 years):
EOT has been optimized for children aged between 7 and 13, is suitable for the gifted and less gifted, and can be used at home and in school. The program is effective in alleviating a variety of symptoms associated with dyslexia, dyscalculia, and dysgraphia.
Edublox also offers live online tutoring to students with dyslexia, dyscalculia, and other learning difficulties. Our students are based in the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and elsewhere. Book a free consultation to discuss your child’s learning needs.
References and sources:
Cowan N, “The magical number 4 in short-term memory: A reconsideration of mental storage capacity.” Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 2001, 24(1): 87–114.
Cusimano A, Learning Disabilities: There Is a Cure. Achieve Publications. 2010.
Kleinfeld JS, “Intellectual strengths in culturally different groups: an Eskimo illustration.” Review of Educational Research. Summer 1973, vol. 43(3): 341-359.
Kulp M et al., “Are visual perceptual skills related to mathematics ability in second through sixth grade children?” Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics. 2004, 26(4): 44-51.
Lufi D, Cohen A, “Attentional deficit disorder and short-term visual memory.” Journal of Clinical Psychology. 1985, vol. 41(2): 265-267.
Mays JL, Effects of Edublox Training versus Edublox Training Combined with Cervical Spinal Manipulative Therapy on Visual Memory and Visual Sequential Memory. M.Tech. thesis, University of Johannesburg. 2013.
Standing L. “Learning 10,000 pictures.” The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 1973, 25(2): 207–222.
Szűcs D et al., “Developmental dyscalculia is related to visuo-spatial memory and inhibition impairment.” Cortex. November 2013, 49(10): 2674-2688.