Most children look forward to learning to read, a process whereby they learn to transform what are essentially abstract squiggles on a page into meaningful letters, then sounds, then words, and then entire sentences and paragraphs. Reading represents a code: specifically, an alphabetic code. A great number of children are able to break the code after a year of instruction. For at least one in five children, however, the experience is very different.
For them, reading, which seems to come effortlessly for others, appears to be beyond their grasp. These children, who understand the spoken word and love to listen to stories, struggle to decipher the same words when they are written on a page. They read slowly and haltingly, and words that they read correctly in one sentence may be misread in a subsequent sentence. Reading aloud may be particularly painful. Eventually they grow frustrated and disappointed.
In the classroom, reading is king; it is essential for academic success. Teachers, witnessing the gap between good and poor readers widening, may wonder what they or these children might be doing wrong. Parents, knowing that reading problems have consequences all across development including into adult life, question themselves, feeling alternately guilty and angry.
How does one identify a reading problem?
The symptoms or signs below indicate that a child has a reading problem and therefore needs help:
• Reverses letters like b and d, or p and q, or reads words like no for on, rat for tar, won for now, saw for was.
• Puts letters in the wrong order, reading felt as left, act as cat, reserve as reverse, expect as except.
• Misreads little words, such as a for and, the for a, from for for, then for there, were for with.
• Loses orientation on a line or page while reading, missing lines or reading previously-read lines again.
• Reads aloud hesitantly, word by word, monotonously.
• Tries to sound the letters of the word, but is then unable to say the correct word. For example, sounds the letters ‘c-a-t’ but then says cold.
• Mispronounces words, or puts stress on the wrong syllables.
• Foreshortens words, for example ‘portion’ for proportion.
• Omits prefixes, omits suffixes or adds suffixes.
• Reads with poor comprehension.
• Remembers little of what was read.
• Cannot match the appropriate letter when given the sound.
• Often ignores punctuation, omitting full stops or commas.
If you’re unsure do a one-minute reading assessment. Watch out for the symptoms above, but also count the total words read minus the errors made = words correct per minute.
- Select a 200 word passage from a grade-level text.
- Have your child read the passage aloud for exactly one minute.
- Count the total number of words he/she has read.
- Count the number of errors he/she has made.
- Subtract the number of errors read per minute from the total number of words read per minute. The result is the average number of words correct per minute (WCPM).
- 1st grade: 60
- 2nd grade: 90
- 3rd grade: 115
- 4th grade: 140
- 5th grade: 170
- 6th grade: 195
How many children have reading problems?
Reading failure is a global problem. Dr. Reid Lyon states that approximately 20 to 30 percent of American children have difficulties learning to read. The Institute for Global Education and Service Learning asserts that the figure is even higher, that 40 percent of American children have difficulty reading or learning to read, and as many as three-quarters of students who are poor readers in third grade will remain poor readers in high school.
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), also known as The Nation’s Report Card, is a continuing, representative assessment of what American students know and can do in various subjects. In November 2011, the NAEP released the 2011 reading scores for fourth- and eighth-graders. The results: roughly two thirds of these students were not reading at grade level. Scoring at the basic and below basic levels, these students couldn’t interpret the meaning of a word as it is used in context, locate relevant information, make simple inferences, or use their understanding of the text to identify details that support a particular interpretation or conclusion.
The World Literacy Foundation reported that one in five members of the UK population are so poor at reading and writing that they struggle to read a medicine label or use a checkbook. According to research, this rate of illiteracy is costing the UK economy £81billion a year in lost earnings and increased welfare spending.
The 2006 international Adult Literacy and Life Skills survey found that approximately 40 percent of employed and 60 percent of unemployed Australians have poor or very poor literacy and numeracy skills.
The PIRLS 2006 study compared the reading abilities of children in 40 countries. South Africa came last, after Morocco. On a scale of 0 to 1000, approximately 80 percent of learners in Grade 4 and 5 failed to reach the Low International Benchmark of 400, meaning that they had not mastered basic reading skills. This was in contrast to only 6 percent of children internationally who did not reach the Low International Benchmark. Only 2 percent of South African learners in Grade 5 reached the Advanced International Benchmark of 625, compared to 7 percent internationally.
What are the effects of reading failure?
Persistent reading failure leads to anguish, embarrassment and frustration. “Already by the end of first grade, children having difficulty learning to read begin to feel less positive about themselves than when they started school,” says Dr. G. Reid Lyon, former researcher of the National Institute of Health (NIH) in the US, “As we follow children through elementary and middle school years, self-esteem and the motivation to learn to read decline even further.”
“School dropouts, teenage pregnancy, poor academic achievement, crime — all these are downstream consequences of not learning to read,” continues Lyon. More than three decades of study by the NIH found that of the 10 to 15 percent of children who will eventually drop out of school, more than 75 percent will report reading difficulties.
Research has proven that there is a close relationship between illiteracy and crime. According to the US Department of Education, 85 percent of all juvenile offenders have reading problems. In the adult population, 60 percent of prison inmates are functionally illiterate, meaning that they are unable to read or write well enough to deal with the everyday requirements of life.
Strong reading skills, on the other hand, have been linked to many personal, social and economic benefits. According to research published in Psychological Science, reading ability at the early age of seven may be linked to socio-economic status several decades later.
Following more than 17,000 people in England, Scotland, and Wales over a span of about 50 years (from birth in 1958 to present day), Stuart Ritchie and Timothy Bates of the University of Edinburgh found that participants’ reading and math ability at age seven were linked to their social class a full 35 years later. Participants who had higher reading and maths skills as children later had higher incomes, better housing, and better jobs in adulthood. The data suggest, for example, that achieving one reading level higher at age seven was associated with a £5,000 (roughly $7,750) increase in income at age 42.
“These findings imply that basic childhood skills, independent of how smart you are, how long you stay in school, or the social class you started off in, will be important throughout your life,” state Ritchie and Bates.
What causes reading problems?
Most problems can only be solved if one knows what causes the problem. A disease such as scurvy claimed the lives of thousands of seamen during long sea voyages. The disease was cured fairly quickly once the cause was discovered, viz. a vitamin C deficiency. A viable point of departure would therefore be to ask the question, What is the cause of reading problems?
While there are many factors that may contribute to reading problems, one should not overlook the age-old — but ageless — principle that learning is a stratified process. This is a self-evident fact, yet its significance in teaching reading has apparently never been fully comprehended. Throughout the world in all educational systems it is commonly accepted that a child must start at the lower levels of education and then gradually progress to the higher levels. If human learning had not been a stratified process, if it had taken place on a single level, this would have been unnecessary. It would then not have been important to start a child in first grade. It would have been possible for the child to enter school at any level and to complete the school years in any order.
Another simple and practical example is the fact that one has to learn to count before it becomes possible to learn to add and subtract. Suppose one tried to teach a child, who had not yet learned to count, to add and subtract. This would be quite impossible, and no amount of effort would ever succeed in teaching the child to add and subtract. This shows that counting is a skill that must be mastered before it becomes possible to learn to do calculations.
This principle is also of great importance on the sports field. If we go to a soccer field to watch the coach at work, we shall soon find that he spends a lot of time drilling his players in basic skills, like heading, passing, dribbling, kicking, etc. The players who are most proficient at these basic skills usually turn out to be the best players in the actual game situation.
In the same way, there are also certain skills and knowledge that a child must acquire first, before it becomes possible for him to become a good reader.
What cognitive skills are involved in learning to read?
While language skills comprise the first rung of the reading ladder, cognitive skills comprise the second. There is a whole conglomeration of cognitive skills that are foundational to reading.
Attention — or concentration — plays a critical role in learning. Focused attention is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on one aspect of the environment while ignoring other things, while sustained attention refers to the state in which attention must be maintained over time. Both are important foundational skills of reading.
Visual processing refers to the ability to make sense of information taken in through the eyes. This is different from problems involving sight or sharpness of vision. Difficulties with visual processing affect how visual information is interpreted or processed. A child with visual processing problems may have 20/20 vision but may have difficulties discriminating foreground from background, forms, size, and position in space. He may also be unable to synthesize and analyze.
• Foreground-background differentiation. The particular letter, or word, or sentence, that the reader is focused on is elevated to the level of foreground, whereas everything else within the field of vision of the reader (the rest of the page and the book, the desk on which the book is resting, the section of the floor and/or wall that is visible, etc.) is relegated to the background.
• Form discrimination. The most obvious classroom activity requiring the child to discriminate forms is that of reading. The learning of the letters of the alphabet, syllables, and words will undoubtedly be impeded if there is difficulty in perceiving the form of the letters, syllables, and words.
• Size discrimination. Capital letters, being used at the start of a sentence, sometimes look exactly the same as their lower case counterparts, and must therefore be discriminated mainly with regard to size.
• Spatial relations refer to the position of objects in space. It also refers to the ability to accurately perceive objects in space with reference to other objects. A person with a spatial problem may find it difficult to distinguish letters like b, d, p, and q.
• Synthesis and analysis. The reader must be able to perceive individual parts as a whole. In other words, he must be able to synthesize. Although the ability to analyze, i.e. to perceive the whole in its individual parts, does play a role in reading, this ability is of the utmost importance in spelling.
Auditory processing refers to the ability to make sense of information taken in through the ears. It is not the ability to hear, but the ability to interpret, organize, or analyze what’s heard.
Problems with auditory perception generally correspond to those in the visual area and are presented under the following components:
• Auditory foreground-background differentiation refers to the ability to select and attend to relevant auditory stimuli and ignore the irrelevant.
• Auditory discrimination refers to the ability to hear similarities and differences between sounds.
• Auditory blending (also called auditory synthesis) refers to the ability to perceive individual sounds as a whole. The child who has a deficit in auditory blending will be unable to blend the individual sounds in a word. He may know the individual phonemes but simply cannot put them together. He may, for example, sound the letters “c-a-t” but then say “cold.”
Processing speed can be defined as how long it takes to get stuff done.
Memory is the retention of information over time. Although the word memory may conjure up an image of a singular, “all-or-none” process, it is clear that there are actually many kinds of memory, each of which may, to some extent, be independent of the other.
• Visual memory. A good visual memory is essential to build a “visual dictionary” in the brain.
• Auditory memory involves being able to take in information that is presented orally, to process that information, store it in one’s mind and then recall what one has heard.
• Sequential memory requires items to be recalled in a specific order. Many learners with reading difficulties have poor sequential memory.
• Iconic memory. If a line of print were flashed at you very rapidly, say, for one-tenth of a second, all the letters you can visualize for a brief moment after that presentation constitute your iconic memory. Your iconic memory, together with your ability to discriminate between foreground and background, determines your eye-span. Eye span is the number of letters of words you take in at a glance.
When a person reads his eyes do not move continuously along a line of text, but engage in a series of rapid movements (saccades) with intermittent short stops (fixations). The more often the eyes have to pause for fixations, the slower the reading speed will be.
Regressions occur when the eyes move towards the left to look again at words which have already been covered. A poor reader will be inclined to pause more often for fixations, and the duration of each fixation will also be longer than that of the typical reader. The poor reader is also inclined to more regressions that the normal reader.
Improving a person’s iconic memory will widen his eye span.
• Short-term memory refers to the capacity of a person to hold a small amount of information in mind in an active, readily available state for a short period of time; research has shown that children with reading problems suffer from poor short-term as well as poor long-term memory.
• The term working memory refers to the ability to temporarily hold several facts or thoughts in memory while solving a problem or performing a task.
Logical thinking is the process in which one uses reasoning consistently to come to a conclusion. Problems or situations that involve logical thinking call for structure, for relationships between facts, and for chains of reasoning that “make sense.”
My child reads well, yet lacks comprehension. Why is that?
Reading comprehension is the heart and goal of reading, since the purpose of all reading is to gather meaning from the printed page. It is assumed that the comprehension of children who are good readers is on track. But three to ten percent of those children don’t understand most of what they’re reading.
There may be other causes but these are the most common causes of a reading comprehension problem:
Vocabulary is essential for success in reading. Students cannot understand what they read without understanding what most of the words mean. Decades of research have confirmed the important role that vocabulary plays in reading comprehension and in students’ overall academic success.
Poor memory skills
Researchers have been able to pinpoint brain activity and understand its role in reading disabilities, but no functional magnetic resonance imaging or fMRI studies, until recently, have examined the neurobiological profile of those who exhibit poor reading comprehension despite intact word-level abilities.
Neuro-imaging of children showed that, while reading, the brain function of those with reading comprehension problems is quite different and distinct from those with reading disabilities. Those with reading disabilities exhibited abnormalities in a specific region in the occipital-temporal cortex, a part of the brain that is associated with successfully recognizing words on a page. Those with reading comprehension problems, on the other hand, did not show abnormalities in this region, instead showing specific abnormalities in regions typically associated with memory.
That there will be defects in the brain areas concerned with memory makes sense. Several studies have confirmed that reading comprehension relies heavily upon both working memory and long-term memory.
Short-term memory holds information in the mind for only a few seconds while it is being processed. Long-term memory is where such processed information is permanently stored. Working memory is an intermediary and active memory system in the information processing area of the brain. It is an important memory system and one that most of us use every day.
Sentence comprehension depends heavily upon adequate working memory. For example, working memory is required to comprehend sentences that are complex in structure such as, “The clown that is hugging the boy is kissing the girl.” It helps us interpret sentences that are lengthy, “Do every other problem on page fifteen and all of the problems on page sixteen before checking your answers in the back of the book.” We use working memory when preservation of word order (syntax) is important to correctly understand a sentence like, “It was the boy’s ball and not the girl’s that was dirty.”
Poor logical thinking skills
The relationship between logical thinking and reading comprehension is well established in the literature. It has been said that “there is no reading without reasoning,” and even that reading is reasoning.
What can parents do to help their children?
If your child is having trouble learning to read, the best approach is to take immediate action. Ninety-five percent of poor readers can be brought up to grade level if they receive effective help early. The longer you wait to get help for a child with reading difficulties, the harder it will be for that child to catch up.
Reading consultant Susan Hall urges parents to trust their intuition. “I have listened to parent after parent tell me about feeling there was a problem earlier on, yet being persuaded to discount their intuition and wait to seek help for their child. Later, when they learnt time is of the essence in developing reading skills, the parents regretted the lost months or years.”
How can Edublox help?
Edublox specializes in cognitive training that makes learners smarter, and help them read faster, easier, and better. Edublox Reading Tutor addresses:
- Concentration: Focused and sustained attention.
- Perceptual skills: Visual and auditory foreground-background differentiation; visual and auditory discrimination, synthesis and analysis; form discrimination; spatial relations.
- Memory: Visual, auditory, sequential, iconic, short-term, long-term and working memory.
- Logical thinking and reasoning.
- Reading, spelling, vocabulary and comprehension.